Introducing "Energy Union Choices"

The mission of the Energy Union Choices is to provide practical, independent and objective analysis on the infrastructure choices required for and compatible with a European low carbon economy. It is an innovative way of engaging and testing critical choices around infrastructure deployment, energy security trade-offs, system flexibility and the value of integration.

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Our Publications



Efficiency First: From Principle to Practice with Real World Examples from Across Europe

The EU’s energy infrastructure faces numerous challenges over the next decades. It needs to be decarbonised whilst ensuring the competitiveness of EU industry, providing energy security, addressing energy poverty, and empowering consumers, who play a crucial part in the energy system of the future. Getting those choices right is key for ensuring a sustainable, fair, and affordable and secure energy future. “Efficiency First” delivers on all three.

A new report issued by RAP, E3G, and Client Earth  translates the principle of Efficiency First into practice and asks: Is Efficiency First entirely new to Europe? How would applying the principle look in practice?

By: RAP, E3G, ClientEarth Date: 21.11.2016



Evaluation of security of supply and gas infrastructure needs in NSI East

An analysis of the security of supply and gas infrastructure needs in the North South Energy Interconnections (NSI East) region, conducted by Artelys and presented at a NSI East regional gas group workshop on November 7.

By: Energy Union Choices Date: 16.11.2016



Evaluation of security of supply and gas infrastructure needs in BEMIP

An analysis of the security of supply and gas infrastructure needs in the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP) region, conducted by Artelys and presented at a BEMIP regional gas group workshop on October 26.

By: Energy Union Choices Date: 16.11.2016



Safeguarding Energy Security in South-East Europe with Investment in Demand-Side Infrastructure

International developments over the past few years have intensified the energy challenges facing Central and Southern European countries. The interruption of Russian gas supply via Ukraine, volatile global oil prices and divergent interests of State actors have renewed Europe’s concerns about its energy dependency.

The report explores the vulnerability of the building sector to gas supply interruptions in specific countries of the region, through the prism of the Building stock Vulnerability Indicator (BVI). The BVI takes into account the size of gas consumption in the building sector, along with the dependence on imported gas and its routes diversity.

The analysis considers an alternative approach to gas supply investments and instead proposes an “efficiency first” solution: reducing gas demand through a dedicated building renovation programme. BPIE puts forward a set of recommendations covering risk assessment and preventive measures, guidance on investment opportunities as well as on developing future EU and MS level strategies.

By: BPIE Date: 07.09.2016



More Security, less money: A smarter approach to gas infrastructure in Europe

A significant quantity of gas infrastructure is being planned in Europe, with security of supply often quoted as a key driver for new infrastructure.

This infrastructure expansion comes despite recent reductions in EU gas consumption. Meeting EU energy and climate targets will require a reduction in fossil fuel use over time, raising questions about how new gas infrastructure is planned and prioritised in the energy transitions. This paper by E3G draws out the public interest and policy implications from the Energy Union Choices report and looks at what approach to gas infrastructure is needed to avoid stranded capacity and ensure taxpayer and consumer money is well spent.

By: E3G Date: 19.07.2016


Currently featured

A Perspective on Infrastructure and Energy Security In the Transition

Based on extensive technical analysis conducted by the Artelys, ElementEnergy and Climact, the study looks at which infrastructure investments are lowest risk and regret to ensure resilience throughout the transition, and whether an integrated view on infrastructure (gas, power, buildings) help meet security of supply challenges at a lower cost. It finds that, overall, the existing gas infrastructure in Europe is resilient to a wide range of demand projections and supply disruptions. In places where gas security of supply concerns do occur, the report finds that an integrated, regional approach that looks at gas, electricity and buildings together, can help meet these challenges at significantly lower costs.

By: Energy Union Choices Date: 19.07.2016

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